Post-traumatic stress disorder
|AGE Children and elderly people are at increased risk||GENDER Women are at increased risk|
|LIFESTYLE Not significant factors||GENETICS Not significant factors|
Post-traumatic stress disorder is a prolonged emotional response to an extreme personal experience.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs when a person is involved in a stressful event that triggers persistent intense emotions for some time afterwards. Experiencing an event in which life and personal safety are perceived to be at risk or simply witnessing a traumatic event is often enough to trigger the disorder. The kind of events that result in PTSD include natural disasters, accidents, and being assaulted.
About 1 in 10 people experiences PTSD. Children, elderly people, and women are more susceptible, as are people who have a history of another psychiatric disorder.
What are the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder?
The symptoms of PTSD occur soon after the event or develop weeks, months, or, rarely, years later. They may include:
- Involuntary thoughts about and repeated reliving of the experience.
- Daytime flashbacks of the event.
- Panic attacks with symptoms such as shortness of breath and fainting.
- Avoidance of reminders of the event and refusal to discuss it.
- Sleep disturbance and nightmares.
- Poor concentration and irritability.
People with PTSD often feel emotionally “numb”, detached from events, and estranged from family and friends. After a while, they may lose interest in their normal everyday activities. Other psychological disorders, such as anxiety and depression, may coexist with PTSD. Occasionally, the disorder leads to alcohol or drug abuse.
What might be done?
The doctor will assess the severity of symptoms and ask about the person's past mental health. Counselling may help the person to talk about his or her experiences, and support for the individual and family members is often an important part of treatment. Drugs such as antidepressants may also be used. Although this approach often produces an improvement within 8 weeks, drugs may need to be taken for at least a year. Often, most of the symptoms of PTSD disappear after a few months of treatment, but some symptoms may persist for years. Once a person has experienced PTSD, there is an increased likelihood of it recurring following another stressful event.
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