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Joint and ligament disorders

Joint and ligament disorders

Joints occur where bones meet, and they allow our bodies to be flexible. Lubricated tissue called cartilage lines the ends of bones and prevents friction during movement, and fibrous ligaments surrounding the joint give strength and support. Joints may be damaged by arthritis, injury, infection or degeneration of bone, cartilage, and ligaments caused by aging or disease. Joint disorders are a major cause of disability and immobility, but treatment has greatly improved during the past 25 years, partly due to the availability of reliable artificial joints.

  • Ankylosing spondylitis

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a persistent inflammation and stiffening of the joints, usually affecting the spine and pelvis.
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  • Bursitis

    Bursitis is the inflammation of a bursa, one of the fluid-filled sacs located around joints.
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  • Cervical spondylosis

    Cervical spondylosis is a disease of bones and cartilage in the neck, which may lead to pain and stiffness.
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  • Chondromalacia

    Chondromalacia is pain in the front of the knee due to an abnormality of the cartilage at the back of the kneecap.
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  • Frozen shoulder

    Frozen shoulder is pain and restriction of movement in the shoulder joint.
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  • Prolapsed or herniated disc

    A prolapsed or herniated disc is the protrusion of one of the shock-absorbing pads that lie between the vertebrae of the spine, also known as a 'slipped disc'.
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  • Spondylolisthesis

    Spondylolisthesis is a disorder in which a vertebra (bone of the spine) slips forwards over one beneath it.
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  • Gout

    Gout is a type of arthritis in which crystalline deposits of uric acid form within joints, particularly at the base of the big toe.
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  • Pseudogout

    Pseudogout is a type of arthritis in which crystals of calcium pyrophosphate or other chemicals are deposited in joints.
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  • Reactive arthritis

    Reactive arthritis is the inflammation of joints as a result of an abnormal immune response to a recent infection elsewhere in the body.
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