In the first year, a baby grows faster than at any time in later life, and most triple in weight and grows in length by about 25 cm (10 in) during this first year.
Many problems in newborn babies are associated with their immaturity and adjustment to a new environment. Premature babies are at particular risk of life-threatening conditions, but medical advances have greatly increased the number of babies that survive.
Disorders of the heart and lungs are relatively common in children. The heart is affect by birth defects more than any other organ.
Disorders caused by gene defects or chromosome abnormalities vary enormously in their effects, from unnoticeable to severe problems.
Rare disorders of the infant's digestive system may be due to a physical defect present at birth, and which may require surgery.
The majority of disorders affecting an infant's eyes or ears, are congenital, meaning that the child is born with impaired vision or hearing.
In addition to injuries and fractures, most musculoskeletal problems in infants are those present at birth.
Serious problems of the nervous system are uncommon in infants, although disabling conditions may be present from birth.
The cause of most reproductive and urinary system disorders in infants is the abnormal development of these systems in the fetus.
Some endocrine and most metabolic disorders in infants are present from birth and are caused by an inherited abnormal gene.
An infant's skin is sensitive and susceptible to irritation. Particularly prevalent in infants are cradle cap and nappy rash.
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