|AGE More common under the age of 25||GENDER Not significant factors|
|LIFESTYLE Poor oral hygiene and a diet high in sugar are risk factors||GENETICS Not significant factors|
A dental carie is the progressive decay of one or more teeth, causing cavities to form.
Gradual, progressive decay of a tooth is known as dental caries. This condition usually starts as a small cavity in the enamel (the hard, protective outer covering of a tooth). If left untreated, the decay eventually penetrates the outer layer of enamel and attacks the dentine, the softer material that makes up the bulk of a tooth. As the tooth decay progresses, the pulp (the living core of the tooth that contains the nerves and blood vessels) may be affected (see Pulpitis). If the pulp is exposed to decay and becomes infected, it may die.
Most people develop dental caries at some time in their lives. In younger age groups, tooth decay most often occurs on the chewing surfaces of the upper and lower teeth and on the surfaces where the teeth touch each other. In older people, tooth decay is more common at the gum margins where the teeth meet the gums.
In developed countries, the number of teeth lost as a result of dental caries has fallen considerably in recent years, particularly among children. This fall is partly due to the addition of fluoride to drinking water in some areas and to the widespread use of fluoride toothpaste, both of which help to harden the teeth, making them more resistant to decay.
What are the causes of dental caries?
Tooth decay is usually caused by a build-up of plaque (a deposit of food particles, saliva, and bacteria) on the surface of the teeth. The bacteria in plaque break down the sugar in food to produce an acid that erodes the tooth enamel. If sugary foods are eaten often and the teeth are not cleaned thoroughly soon afterwards, a cavity is eventually likely to form.
The condition is especially common in children, adolescents, and young adults because they are more likely to have a diet high in sugar and fail to clean their teeth regularly. Babies who frequently fall asleep with a bottle of juice in their mouth may also develop severe caries, especially in the front teeth.
What are the symptoms of dental caries?
There may be no signs of dental caries in the early stages, but the symptoms develop gradually as the decay progresses and may include:
- Toothache, which may be constant or sharp and stabbing and triggered by hot, cold, or sweet foods or drinks.
- Persistent, throbbing pain in the jaw and occasionally in the ear and face, which may be worse when chewing.
- Bad breath.
Pain in a tooth can take several forms. It may be persistent, recurrent, or set off by extremes of hot or cold or pressure on the tooth. You should see your dentist as soon as possible after the pain first appears and make an immediate appointment if the pain ends abruptly because this may indicate that the nerves and blood vessels have died. Delaying a visit to your dentist may result in the spread of infection, and an abscess may eventually form (see Dental abscess).
What might be done?
Your dentist will examine your teeth with a probe and a mirror to look for areas of tooth decay. An X-ray may also be taken to look for decay that may be developing beneath the surface of the teeth (see Dental checkup).
If you have superficial dental caries restricted to the surface of the enamel, your dentist may only apply fluoride to the affected area and advise you to be more careful about oral hygiene.
If tooth decay has penetrated further into the enamel or if it has affected the dentine, your dentist will probably need to fill the affected tooth (see Tooth filling). An injection of a local anaesthetic is often used to numb the tooth and nearby gum to prevent you from feeling pain. When the area is numb, the decayed parts of the tooth are drilled out, and the cavity is cleaned and filled to prevent further decay. If you have pulpitis and the pulp cannot be saved, you may need to have root canal treatment.
Can dental caries be prevented?
Your teeth and gums should be brushed and flossed regularly to keep them clean (see Caring for your teeth and gums). You can also help to prevent dental caries from developing by avoiding sweet foods and drinks.
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